Tono Basic Linux i runga i Linux me Windows Whakahaere Systems

This writing is useful for those that wish to get started with Linux commands. Here you will find the most common commands that are used in Linux.

If you would like to run Linux commands on Windows then install Cygwin. Cygwin is a Linux layer on top of Windows that allows you to use Linux commands in Windows.

Ki te tāuta koe Cygwin i runga i Windows na te ara taunoa ina tīmata koe e te tauranga Cygwin:



Waihanga tauira kōnae Pukatuhi hou

touch textfile.txt


Huri whaiaronga

cd {directory path\name}


List directory content in long format ( -l ) including hidden files and directories ( -a )

ls -l -a

ls -al


Order files and directories by the time they were last modified

ls -t


List directory with pause and scrolling

ls -l | less


Whakaaturia tauwāhi o nāianei (print working directory)



Unu whakamutunga 100 kupu o te kōnae

tail -100 {filename.extension}


Unu tuatahi 100 rarangi o te kōnae

head -100 {filename.extension}


Tāruatia te kōnae

cp {source} {destination}


Nuku i te kōnae

mv {source} {destination}


Hanga he whaiaronga hou

mkdir {new directory name}


Mukua te kōnae

rm {filename}


Delete an empty directory

rmdir {directory to remove}
rm -d{directory to remove}


Delete directory and its contents

rm -r {directory to remove}
rm -R{directory to remove}


Kōmakatia te tirotiro o te kōnae

sort {filename to sort}


Tangohia ngā tāurunga tāruarua i roto i te kōnae

uniq {filename to remove duplicates}


Kōpeke kōnae

gzip {filename}


Kōpeke whaiaronga

gzip -r {directory name}


Tatauria te maha o ngā rārangi, me te kupu i roto i te kōnae kuputuhi

wc {filename}


Search text within files for matching string pattern (case sensitive)

grep 'word' {filename}


Search text within files for matching string pattern (case insensitive)

grep -i 'word' {filename}


Search with a directory

grep -R Arctic /home/ccuser/workspace/geography


Whakaatu ihirangi o te kōnae kuputuhi



sed stream editor (similar to find and replace)

sed 's/snow/rain/' forests.txt


Hurihia ngā whakaaetanga kōnae me te whaiaronga

chmod {options} {permissions} {filename}


Hiki whakahau tata whakamahia



Tabula aunoa mahi



Whakaaetanga Huria kōnae

chmod {permission number} {some file or directory}
chmod 777 /storage


Hurihia ngā whakaaetanga kōnae recursive

chmod -R {permission number} {some file or directory}



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