Basic Linux Commands in Fenestra Linux operating Systems

This writing is useful for those that wish to get started with Linux commands. Here you will find the most common commands that are used in Linux.

If you would like to run Linux commands on Windows then install Cygwin. Cygwin is a Linux layer on top of Windows that allows you to use Linux commands in Windows.

Si install Cygwin in Fenestra tunc default semitam cum vos satus Cygwin terminal erit:



Creo nota file exemplum

touch textfile.txt


Mutatio presul

cd {directory path\name}


List directory content in long format ( -l ) including hidden files and directories ( -a )

ls -l -a

ls -al


Order files and directories by the time they were last modified

ls -t


List directory with pause and scrolling

ls -l | less


Show current location (print working directory)



Postremo eiciuntur 100 verba a file

tail -100 {filename.extension}


Extractum primo 100 ordines a file

head -100 {filename.extension}


Effingo a file

cp {source} {destination}


Move a file

mv {source} {destination}


Novam presul

mkdir {new directory name}


Delete lima

rm {filename}


Delete an empty directory

rmdir {directory to remove}
rm -d{directory to remove}


Delete directory and its contents

rm -r {directory to remove}
rm -R{directory to remove}


Sort contentis a lima

sort {filename to sort}


Remove duplicate entries in a lima

uniq {filename to remove duplicates}


Compriment files

gzip {filename}


Compriment presul

gzip -r {directory name}


Recense ordines verbaque text file

wc {filename}


Search text within files for matching string pattern (case sensitive)

grep 'word' {filename}


Search text within files for matching string pattern (case insensitive)

grep -i 'word' {filename}


Search with a directory

grep -R Arctic /home/ccuser/workspace/geography


Display content of a text file



sed stream editor (similar to find and replace)

sed 's/snow/rain/' forests.txt


Mutare lima quod presul permissiones

chmod {options} {permissions} {filename}


List mandata recentia used



Automatically schedule munia



Mutatio file permissiones

chmod {permission number} {some file or directory}
chmod 777 /storage


Mutare recursive file permissiones

chmod -R {permission number} {some file or directory}



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