Basic Linux fari on Operating Systems Linux iyo Windows

This writing is useful for those that wish to get started with Linux commands. Here you will find the most common commands that are used in Linux.

If you would like to run Linux commands on Windows then install Cygwin. Cygwin is a Linux layer on top of Windows that allows you to use Linux commands in Windows.

Haddii aad soo dajiyo Cygwin on Windows markaas Jidka default marka aad bilowdo terminal Cygwin uu noqon doono:



Samee tusaale cusub file buugayga

touch textfile.txt


Buugga Change

cd {directory path\name}


List directory content in long format ( -l ) including hidden files and directories ( -a )

ls -l -a

ls -al


Order files and directories by the time they were last modified

ls -t


List buugga la hakin iyo boggan

ls -l | less


Tus goobta ay hadda joogaan (print working directory)



Waraaqda la soo dhaafay 100 erayadii file ah

tail -100 {filename.extension}


Hore Waraaqda 100 saf oo file ah

head -100 {filename.extension}


Copy file ah

cp {source} {destination}


Dhaqaaq file ah

mv {source} {destination}


Samee buugga cusub

mkdir {new directory name}


Delete file

rm {filename}


Delete an empty directory

rmdir {directory to remove}
rm -d{directory to remove}


Delete directory and its contents

rm -r {directory to remove}
rm -R{directory to remove}


Sort ka kooban file ah

sort {filename to sort}


Saar entries nuqul ee file ah

uniq {filename to remove duplicates}


Cadaadi files

gzip {filename}


Cadaadi buugga

gzip -r {directory name}


Tiri tirada saf oo erayadan file qoraalka ah

wc {filename}


Search text within files for matching string pattern (case sensitive)

grep 'word' {filename}


Search text within files for matching string pattern (case insensitive)

grep -i 'word' {filename}


Search with a directory

grep -R Arctic /home/ccuser/workspace/geography


Content Display ee file qoraalka ah



sed stream editor (similar to find and replace)

sed 's/snow/rain/' forests.txt


Beddel file iyo buugga rukhsadda

chmod {options} {permissions} {filename}


Qor amarrada dhawaan loo isticmaalo



Si toos ah jadwalka hawlaha



Rukhsadda file Change

chmod {permission number} {some file or directory}
chmod 777 /storage


Beddel rukhsadda file recursive

chmod -R {permission number} {some file or directory}



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